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Currently accepted at: JMIR mHealth and uHealth

Date Submitted: Jul 5, 2019
Open Peer Review Period: Jul 9, 2019 - Aug 19, 2019
Date Accepted: Sep 23, 2019
(closed for review but you can still tweet)

This paper has been accepted and is currently in production.

It will appear shortly on 10.2196/15359

The final accepted version (not copyedited yet) is in this tab.

Development of the Living Labs for Mobile App-based Health(LLm Health) Program for Korean-Chinese Women Workers in South Korea: A Mixed Methods Study

  • Youlim Kim; 
  • Hyeonkyeong Lee; 
  • Mikyung Lee; 
  • Hyeyeon Lee; 
  • Hyoeun Jang; 



Korean-Chinese (KC) women make up the largest group of female migrants in South Korea. To prevent and manage chronic diseases in middle-aged KC women working full-time, it is necessary to develop health promotion programs that utilize an online platform, because such a platform would allow individuals to participate in health promotion interventions at their convenience.


To develop a living lab for mobile-based health (LLm Health) program focused on improving the physical activity and cultural adaptation of KC women workers.


We used a mixed methods design. Living lab principles were factored into the LLm Health program, including the use of multiple methods, user engagement, multi-stakeholder participants, real-life setting, and co-creation. The program was developed using the four steps of the intervention mapping method: needs assessment, setting of objectives, identification of intervention strategies, and intervention design. Needs assessment was conducted through a literature review, focus group interviews with a total of 16 middle-aged KC women and online survey related to health promotion of migrant workers to 38 stakeholders, such as national institution. Korean-Chinese middle aged women participated in the early stages of program development and provided the idea of developing programs and mobile apps to enhance physical activity and acculturation. The mobile app developed in the program was validated with the help of 12 KC women and four experts including three nursing professors and a professor of physical education. They were asked to rate each item based on content, interface design, and technology on the four-point scale using 23-item Smartphone App Evaluation Tool for Healthcare.


The LLm Health program comprised a 24-week walking program using Fitbit devices, the mobile app, and social-cognitive interventions. The mobile app contained six components: a step counter, an exercise timer, an online chat function, health information, level of cardiovascular risk, and health status. The cultural aspects and lifestyles of KC women were adapted to the entire process of program development. The content validity of the mobile app was found to be as .90 and .96 according to the 12 KC women and four experts, respectively.


The mobile app was found to be valid and acceptable for KC women. The living lab approach was useful strategy for developing a culturally adaptive LLm Health program for KC women workers as leading active participation of KC women in the overall research process including needs assessment, program composition and pre-evaluation.


Please cite as:

Kim Y, Lee H, Lee M, Lee H, Jang H

Development of the Living Labs for Mobile App-based Health(LLm Health) Program for Korean-Chinese Women Workers in South Korea: A Mixed Methods Study

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.15359


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