Maintenance Notice

Due to necessary scheduled maintenance, the JMIR Publications website will be unavailable from Monday, March 11, 2019 at 4:00 PM to 4:30 PM EST. We apologize in advance for any inconvenience this may cause you.

Who will be affected?


Currently submitted to: JMIR mHealth and uHealth

Date Submitted: Nov 26, 2019
Open Peer Review Period: Nov 26, 2019 - Dec 12, 2019
(closed for review but you can still tweet)

NOTE: This is an unreviewed Preprint

Warning: This is a unreviewed preprint (What is a preprint?). Readers are warned that the document has not been peer-reviewed by expert/patient reviewers or an academic editor, may contain misleading claims, and is likely to undergo changes before final publication, if accepted, or may have been rejected/withdrawn (a note “no longer under consideration” will appear above).

Peer-review me: Readers with interest and expertise are encouraged to sign up as peer-reviewer, if the paper is within an open peer-review period (in this case, a “Peer-Review Me” button to sign up as reviewer is displayed above). All preprints currently open for review are listed here. Outside of the formal open peer-review period we encourage you to tweet about the preprint.

Citation: Please cite this preprint only for review purposes or for grant applications and CVs (if you are the author).

Final version: If our system detects a final peer-reviewed “version of record” (VoR) published in any journal, a link to that VoR will appear below. Readers are then encourage to cite the VoR instead of this preprint.

Settings: If you are the author, you can login and change the preprint display settings, but the preprint URL/DOI is supposed to be stable and citable, so it should not be removed once posted.

Submit: To post your own preprint, simply submit to any JMIR journal, and choose the appropriate settings to expose your submitted version as preprint.

Stunting Diagnostic and Awareness: Impact assessment study of sociodemographic factors of stunting among school-going children of Pakistan



Stunting is a major public health issue in most of developing countries. Although, its worldwide prevalence is decreasing slowly but the number of stunted children is still rising in Pakistan. Stunting is highly associated with several long-term consequences, including higher rate of mortality and morbidity, deficient cognitive growth, school performance, learning capacity, work capacity and work productivity. To prevent stunting, we proposed Stunting Diagnostic and Education app. This app includes detailed knowledge of stunting and it’s all forms, symptoms, causes, video tutorials and guidelines by the Pediatricians and Nutritionists.


The aim and objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of stunting in school-going children in Multan District of Punjab Pakistan and to analyze the risk factors associated with stunting in children under and over 5 age. This study presents Stunting Diagnostic and Education app to prevent the stunting in children under 5 age and children over 5 age (where required).


A cross-sectional study has been conducted in schools of Multan District, Pakistan for the period of January 2019 to June 2019. Sample data of 1420 children, aged 4 to 18 years using three age groups, were analyzed by using SPSS version 21.0 to assess the prevalence of stunting and to analyze the main factors associated with it. Chi square test was applied in comparison with rural and urban participants and p-value <0.05 was considered as significant. This study includes distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, parental education, working status of mothers, dietary patterns of school going children and prevalence of stunting in school going children. After getting study results, Stunting Diagnostic and Education app was developed according to the instructions of child experts and nutritionists.


354 (24.93%) participants were stunted out of 1420, 11.9 % children were obese and 63.17% children were normal. Out of 354 stunted children, higher ratio of stunting was found in the age group of 8-11 years children with 51.98 percentage. 37.85% stunted children were found in the age group of 4-7 years and 10.17% stunting was found in the age group of 12-18 years children. It was observed in the study that male children were highly stunted than female with 57.91 % and 42.09% respectively. Children living in rural areas were more stunted affected as compared to the children living in urban society with percentage 58.76 and 41.24 respectively.


Our study concluded that 24.93% children were stunted, out of which, age group of 8-11 years children were highly stunted. The study showed that the literacy of mother or caregiver had high impact on children’s health. Therefore, Stunting Diagnostic and Education app was developed to educate mothers to prevent stunting.


Please cite as:

Stunting Diagnostic and Awareness: Impact assessment study of sociodemographic factors of stunting among school-going children of Pakistan

JMIR Preprints. 26/11/2019:17209

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.17209


Request queued. Please wait while the file is being generated. It may take some time.

© The authors. All rights reserved. This is a privileged document currently under peer-review/community review (or an accepted/rejected manuscript). Authors have provided JMIR Publications with an exclusive license to publish this preprint on it's website for review and ahead-of-print citation purposes only. While the final peer-reviewed paper may be licensed under a cc-by license on publication, at this stage authors and publisher expressively prohibit redistribution of this draft paper other than for review purposes.