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Currently accepted at: JMIR mHealth and uHealth

Date Submitted: May 19, 2020
Open Peer Review Period: May 19, 2020 - Jul 14, 2020
Date Accepted: Sep 23, 2020
Date Submitted to PubMed: Oct 11, 2020
(closed for review but you can still tweet)

This paper has been accepted and is currently in production.

It will appear shortly on 10.2196/20465

The final accepted version (not copyedited yet) is in this tab.

An "ahead-of-print" version has been submitted to Pubmed, see PMID: 33038869

Warning: This is an author submission that is not peer-reviewed or edited. Preprints - unless they show as "accepted" - should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.

Sleep Validation of Commercially Available Smart Ring and Watch Against Medical-Grade Actigraphy in Everyday Settings

  • Milad Asgari Mehrabadi; 
  • Iman Azimi; 
  • Fatemeh Sarhaddi; 
  • Anna Axelin; 
  • Hannakaisa Niela-Vilén; 
  • Saana Myllyntausta; 
  • Sari Stenholm; 
  • Nikil Dutt; 
  • Pasi Liljeberg; 
  • Amir M Rahmani



Assessment of sleep quality is essential to address poor sleep quality and understand the changes. Thanks to the advances in Internet-of-Things and wearable technologies, sleep monitoring in free-living conditions has become feasible and practicable. Smart rings and smartwatches can be employed to perform mid- or long-term home-based sleep monitoring. However, the validity of such wearables should be investigated in terms of sleep parameters. Sleep validation studies are mostly limited to short-term laboratory tests. There is a need for a study to assess the sleep attributes of wearables in everyday settings, where the users engage in their daily routines.


We evaluate the sleep parameters of Oura ring along with Samsung Gear Sport watch in comparison to a medically-approved actigraphy device in a mid-term everyday setting, where the users engage in their daily routines.


We conduct home-based sleep monitoring in which the sleep parameters of forty-five healthy individuals (23 females and 22 males) are tracked for seven days. The total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) of the ring and watch are assessed using the paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and Pearson correlation. The parameters are also investigated, considering the gender of the participants as a dependent variable.


Our findings show that there are significant correlations between the TST (r=0.86,P<0.001), WASO (r=0.41,P<0.001), and SE (r=0.47,P<0.001) of the ring and actigraphy. In comparison of the watch with actigraphy, there is a significant correlation in TST (r=0.59, P<0.001). The mean differences of the TST, WASO, and SE of the ring and actigraphy are in the satisfactory ranges, although there are significant differences between the parameters (P<0.001). For the watch, the TST and SE mean differences are also in the satisfactory ranges, and the WASO is slightly higher than the range (31.27±35.15). However, the mean differences of the parameters between the watch and actigraphy are considerably higher than the ring. The watch also shows a significant difference between female and male groups in TST (P<0.001).


Consequently, in a population sample of healthy adults, the sleep parameters of both Oura ring and Samsung watch have acceptable mean differences and indicate significant correlations with the actigraphy, but the ring outperforms the watch in terms of the non-staging sleep parameters.


Please cite as:

Asgari Mehrabadi M, Azimi I, Sarhaddi F, Axelin A, Niela-Vilén H, Myllyntausta S, Stenholm S, Dutt N, Liljeberg P, Rahmani AM

Sleep Validation of Commercially Available Smart Ring and Watch Against Medical-Grade Actigraphy in Everyday Settings

JMIR Preprints. 19/05/2020:20465

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.20465


PMID: 33038869

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