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Currently submitted to: JMIR mHealth and uHealth

Date Submitted: Nov 2, 2020
Open Peer Review Period: Nov 1, 2020 - Dec 27, 2020
(currently open for review)

Warning: This is an author submission that is not peer-reviewed or edited. Preprints - unless they show as "accepted" - should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.

Development of an Android-Based Self-Report Assessment for Elderly Driving Risk (SAFE-DR) Application: A Mixed-Methods study

  • Ho Sung Hwang; 
  • Seong-Youl Choi



Self-report assessments for elderly drivers are used in various countries for accessible, widespread self-monitoring of driving ability in the elderly population. Likewise, in South Korea, the paper-based Self-report Assessment for Elderly Driving Risk (SAFE-DR) has been developed. Here, we implemented the SAFE-DR in an Android application, which has the advantages of accessibility, convenience, and provision of diverse information, and verified its reliability and validity.


This study was tested validity and reliability of a mobile version of a self-report assessment application for elderly persons contextualized to the South Korean culture with comparing paper-based test.


In this mixed-methods study, we recruited and interviewed 567 elderly drivers (≥65 years) between August 2018 and May 2019. For participants who provided consent, the application-based test was repeated after 2 weeks, and an additional paper-based Driver 65 Plus test was also administered. Using the collected data, we analyzed the reliability and validity of the application-based SAFE-DR. In the reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis on 40 of the 44 items established five subdomains: On-road (8 items), Coping (16 items), Cognitive Functions (5 items), General Conditions (8 items), and Medical Health (3 items). In the retest after 2 weeks, the mean correlation coefficient across all items was r=0.951, showing a very high reliability.


A very strong negative correlation of -0.864 was observed between the total score for the application-based SAFE-DR and the paper-based Driver 65 Plus with decorrelation scales. The application-based test was reliable.


This assessment can be applied to the education and preventive screening of elderly drivers’ license renewal policy in South Korea and can contribute to safe driving among elderly drivers.


Please cite as:

Hwang HS, Choi S

Development of an Android-Based Self-Report Assessment for Elderly Driving Risk (SAFE-DR) Application: A Mixed-Methods study

JMIR Preprints. 02/11/2020:25310

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.25310


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