Published on in Vol 9, No 1 (2021): January

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Clinical Advice by Voice Assistants on Postpartum Depression: Cross-Sectional Investigation Using Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, and Microsoft Cortana

Clinical Advice by Voice Assistants on Postpartum Depression: Cross-Sectional Investigation Using Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, and Microsoft Cortana

Clinical Advice by Voice Assistants on Postpartum Depression: Cross-Sectional Investigation Using Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, and Microsoft Cortana


  1. Sezgin E, Noritz G, Lin S, Huang Y. Feasibility of a Voice-Enabled Medical Diary App (SpeakHealth) for Caregivers of Children With Special Health Care Needs and Health Care Providers: Mixed Methods Study. JMIR Formative Research 2021;5(5):e25503 View
  2. Palanica A, Fossat Y. Medication Name Comprehension of Intelligent Virtual Assistants: A Comparison of Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, and Apple Siri Between 2019 and 2021. Frontiers in Digital Health 2021;3 View
  3. Sossenheimer P, Hong G, Devon-Sand A, Lin S. Voice Assistants’ Responses to Questions About the COVID-19 Vaccine: National Cross-sectional Study. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e43007 View
  4. Kannampallil T, Ronneberg C, Wittels N, Kumar V, Lv N, Smyth J, Gerber B, Kringle E, Johnson J, Yu P, Steinman L, Ajilore O, Ma J. Design and Formative Evaluation of a Virtual Voice-Based Coach for Problem-solving Treatment: Observational Study. JMIR Formative Research 2022;6(8):e38092 View
  5. Avila F, Boczar D, Spaulding A, Quest D, Samanta A, Torres-Guzman R, Maita K, Garcia J, Eldaly A, Forte A. High Satisfaction With a Virtual Assistant for Plastic Surgery Frequently Asked Questions. Aesthetic Surgery Journal 2023;43(4):494 View
  6. Chung J, Winship J, Parsons P, Falls K, Bleich M. Stakeholder Perspectives on Implementation of Smart Speakers for Aging in Place in Low-Income Senior Housing: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 2022;48(10):33 View
  7. Seródio Figueiredo C, de Melo T, Goes R. Evaluating Voice Assistants' Responses to COVID-19 Vaccination in Portuguese: Quality Assessment. JMIR Human Factors 2022;9(1):e34674 View
  8. Kocaballi A, Sezgin E, Clark L, Carroll J, Huang Y, Huh-Yoo J, Kim J, Kocielnik R, Lee Y, Mamykina L, Mitchell E, Moore R, Murali P, Mynatt E, Park S, Pasta A, Richards D, Silva L, Smriti D, Spillane B, Zhang Z, Zubatiy T. Design and Evaluation Challenges of Conversational Agents in Health Care and Well-being: Selective Review Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(11):e38525 View
  9. Sezgin E, Oiler B, Abbott B, Noritz G, Huang Y. “Hey Siri, Help Me Take Care of My Child”: A Feasibility Study With Caregivers of Children With Special Healthcare Needs Using Voice Interaction and Automatic Speech Recognition in Remote Care Management. Frontiers in Public Health 2022;10 View
  10. Bérubé C, Kovacs Z, Fleisch E, Kowatsch T. Reliability of Commercial Voice Assistants’ Responses to Health-Related Questions in Noncommunicable Disease Management: Factorial Experiment Assessing Response Rate and Source of Information. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(12):e32161 View
  11. Esposito C, Schindler-Ruwisch J. “Alexa, did the pandemic make you smarter?” A follow up content analysis of a virtual assistant’s responses to a prenatal query. Informatics for Health and Social Care 2023;48(3):231 View
  12. Bickmore T, Ólafsson S, O'Leary T. Mitigating Patient and Consumer Safety Risks When Using Conversational Assistants for Medical Information: Exploratory Mixed Methods Experiment. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(11):e30704 View
  13. Millard L, Johnson L, Neaves S, Flach P, Tilling K, Lawlor D. Collecting Food and Drink Intake Data With Voice Input: Development, Usability, and Acceptability Study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2023;11:e41117 View
  14. Kavian J, Wilkey H, Patel P, Boyd C. Harvesting the Power of Artificial Intelligence for Surgery: Uses, Implications, and Ethical Considerations. The American Surgeon™ 2023:000313482311754 View
  15. Land J, Pavlik E, Ueland E, Ueland S, Per N, Quick K, Gorski J, Riggs M, Hutchcraft M, Llanora J, Yun D. Evaluation of Replies to Voice Queries in Gynecologic Oncology by Virtual Assistants Siri, Alexa, Google, and Cortana. BioMedInformatics 2023;3(3):553 View
  16. Sezgin E, Chekeni F, Lee J, Keim S. Clinical Accuracy of Large Language Models and Google Search Responses to Postpartum Depression Questions: Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e49240 View
  17. Otero-González I, Pacheco-Lorenzo M, Fernández-Iglesias M, Anido-Rifón L. Conversational agents for depression screening: A systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics 2024;181:105272 View
  18. Loveys K, Sagar M, Antoni M, Broadbent E. The Impact of Virtual Humans on Psychosomatic Medicine. Psychosomatic Medicine 2023;85(7):619 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Bérubé C, Fleisch E. Digital Therapeutics for Mental Health and Addiction. View
  2. Siegert I, Busch M, Metzner S, Krüger J. Design, Operation and Evaluation of Mobile Communications. View
  3. Callejas Z, Fernández-Martínez F, Esposito A, Griol D. Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Neural Systems to Data Science. View