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Published on 15.01.18 in Vol 6, No 1 (2018): January

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at http://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/8789, first published Aug 20, 2017.

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:

    Corrigenda and Addenda

    Correction: Mobile App-Based Interventions to Support Diabetes Self-Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials to Identify Functions Associated with Glycemic Efficacy

    1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

    2Department of Academic Affairs, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

    3Diabetes Unit, Madonna del Soccorso Hospital, San Benedetto del Tronto (AP), Italy

    4Center for Outcomes Research and Clinical Epidemiology, Pescara, Italy

    5Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

    Corresponding Author:

    Sheyu Li, MD

    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    West China Hospital

    Sichuan University

    37# Guoxue Road

    Wuhou District

    Chengdu, 610041

    China

    Phone: 86 13194874843

    Fax:86 2885422982

    Email:



    In “Mobile App-Based Interventions to Support Diabetes Self-Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials to Identify Functions Associated with Glycemic Efficacy” (JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2017;5(3):e35), there was an error in Table 2. The “Mean (SD) HbA1c, %: baseline; end; change” for “Rossi 2013” should read “I: 8.4 (NR); 7.9 (NR); –0.5 (NR); C: 8.5 (NR); 8.1 (NR); –0.5 (NR)” instead of “I: 8.4 (0.1); 7.9 (0.1); –0.5 (0.1); C: 8.5 (0.1); 8.1 (0.1); –0.5 (0.1)”.

    As a result, data were slightly changed as follows:

    1. In the Results subsection of the Abstract, the data were changed in 4 places:
      1. “Across 12 included trials involving 974 participants, using app-based interventions was associated with a clinically significant reduction of HbA1c (MD 0.48%, 95% CI 0.19%-0.78%) without excess adverse events”;
      2. “Larger HbA1c reductions were noted among patients with type 2 diabetes than those with type 1 diabetes (MD 0.67%, 95% CI 0.30%-1.03% vs MD 0.37%, 95% CI –0.12%-0.86%)”;
      3. “Having a complication prevention module in app-based interventions was associated with a greater HbA1c reduction (with complication prevention: MD 1.31%, 95% CI 0.66%-1.96% vs without: MD 0.38%, 95% CI 0.09%-0.67%; intersubgroup P=.01), as was having a structured display (with structured display: MD 0.69%, 95% CI 0.32%-1.06% vs without: MD 0.17%, 95% CI –0.18%-0.53%; intersubgroup P=.05).”
      4. “However, having a clinical decision-making function was not associated with a larger HbA1c reduction (with clinical decision making: MD 0.19%, 95% CI –0.24%-0.63% vs without: MD 0.61%, 95% CI 0.27%-0.95%; intersubgroup P=.14).
    2. In the Effects of Mobile App-Based Interventions on HbA1c subsection of the Results, the data were changed in 4 places:
      1. ”The use of mobile app-based interventions was associated with a clinically significant HbA1c reduction of 0.48% (95% CI 0.19%-0.78%, I2=76%, P<.001);
      2. “The use of app-based interventions did not achieve statistical significance among patients with T1DM (MD 0.37%, 95% CI –0.12%-0.86%, I2=86%, P<.001)”;
      3. Figure 4;
      4. Figure 5.
    3. In the Effects of Modules, Risks, and Technologies of App-Based Interventions on HbA1c subsection of the Results, data were corrected in the following 5 places:
      1. “We noted a greater HbA1c reduction when interventions included a complication prevention module (with complication prevention: MD 1.31%, 95% CI 0.66%-1.96%, I2=0%, P=.84 vs without: MD 0.38%, 95% CI 0.09%-0.68%, I2=76%, P<.001; test for subgroup difference P=.01)”;
      2. “Having a structured display was also associated with a larger HbA1c reduction (with structured display: MD 0.69%, 95% CI 0.32%-1.06%, I2=63%, P=.008 vs without: MD 0.17%, 95% CI –0.18% to 0.53%, I2=75%, P=.007; test for subgroup difference P=.05)”;
      3. “For high-risk interventions with a clinical decision-making function, the reduction of HbA1c was 0.19% (95% CI –0.24%-0.63%, I2=82%, P=.004), while the reduction was 0.61% (95% CI 0.27%-0.95%, I2=64%, P=.005) for potential-risk interventions without clinical decision making (test for subgroup difference P=.14)”;
      4. “Interventions using manual entry showed an associated lower HbA1c reduction without statistical significance (wire connection: MD 0.70%, 95% CI 0.33%-1.07% vs wireless connection: MD 0.53% CI 0.15%-0.92%, I2 =46%, P=.10 vs manual entry: MD 0.37%, 95% CI –0.12%-0.86%, I2 =86%, P<.001; test for subgroup difference P=.56)”;
      5. Figure 6.
    4. In the Principal Findings subsection of the Discussion, the data were corrected in 4 places:
      1. 1) “The meta-analysis of 12 RCTs demonstrated that app-based interventions were associated with a statistically and clinically significant HbA1c reduction of 0.48% (95% CI 0.19%-0.78%)”;
      2. 2) “We noted larger HbA1c reductions for patients with T2DM (MD 0.67%, 95% CI 0.30%-1.03%) than those with T1DM (MD 0.37%, 95% CI –0.12%-0.86%)”;
      3. 3) “The exploratory subgroup analyses showed that having a clinical decision-making function in app-based interventions was not associated with a greater HbA1c reduction (with clinical decision making: MD 0.19%, 95% CI –0.24%-0.63% vs without: MD 0.61%, 95% CI 0.27%-0.95%; intersubgroup P=.14)”.

    The corrected article will appear in the online version of the paper on the JMIR website on January 15, 2018, together with the publication of this correction notice. Because this was made after submission to PubMed or Pubmed Central and other full-text repositories, the corrected article also has been re-submitted to those repositories.

    Please see the corrected data and figures here.

    Figure 4. Effects of app-based mobile health interventions on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). MD: mean difference.
    View this figure
    Figure 5. Effects of app-based mobile health interventions on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). MD: mean difference.
    View this figure
    Figure 6. Effects of modules, risks, and technologies of app-based mobile health interventions on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). MD: mean difference.
    View this figure

    Edited by G Eysenbach; This is a non-peer-reviewed article. submitted 20.08.17; accepted 15.12.17; published 15.01.18

    ©Yuan Wu, Xun Yao, Giacomo Vespasiani, Antonio Nicolucci, Yajie Dong, Joey Kwong, Ling Li, Xin Sun, Haoming Tian, Sheyu Li. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 15.01.2018.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR mhealth and uhealth, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://mhealth.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.